10. Why not to be Alone ? 为何不独自一人?

Why not to be Alone ?

It is not to hide your desires & fears, that one choose a solitary life.


Livve among people as if the Gods beheld you; speak with God as if people were listening.

On Living to Oneself

Yes, I do not change my opinion: avoid the many, avoid the few, avoid even the individual.

Crates, they say, the disciple of the very Stilbo whom I mentioned in a former letter, noticed the youth walking by alone, & asked what they were doing all alone. “I am communing with myself,” replied the youth; “Pray be careful, then,” said Crates, “& take good heed; you are communing with a bad person!”

When persons are in mourning, or fearful about something, we are accustomed to watch them that we may prevent them from making a wrong use of their loneliness.

No thoughtless person ought to be left alone; in such cases they only plan folly, & heaps up future dangers for themselves or for others; they bring into play their base desires; the mind displays what fear or shame used to repress; it whets their boldness, stirs their passions, & goads their anger.

Finally, the only benefit that solitude confers, – the habit of trusting no one, & of fearing no witnesses, – is lost to the fool; for they betray themselves.

Mark therefore what my hopes are for you, – nay, rather, what I am promising myself, inasmuch as hope is merely the title of an uncertain blessing: I do not know any person with whom I should prefer you to associate rather than yourself.

You are not one of the many; you have regard for your rreal welfare.
Speak, & live, in this way; see to it that nothing keeps you down.

As for your former prayers, you may dispense the divine from answering them; offer new prayers; pray for a sound mind & for good health, first of soul & then of body, & of course you should offer these prayers frequently.

Call boldly upon the Divine; you will not be asking for that which belongs to another.

I must, as is my custom, send a little gift along with this letter; It is a true saying which I have found in Athenodorus: “Know that thou art freed from all desires, when thou hast reached such a point that thou, prayest to the Divine for nothing, except what thou canst pray for openly.”

How foolish people are now!, They whisper the basest of prayers to heaven; but if anyone listens, they are silent at once; that which they are unwilling for people to know, they communicate to God.

Livve among people as if the Gods beheld you; speak with God as if people were listening”.

Farewell.

Seneca, StoicTaoist.

为何不独自一人?

选择孤独的生活,并不是为了隐藏你的欲望和恐惧。


生活在人与人之间,仿佛众神注视着你;与上帝交谈时,就像众人们都在倾听一样。

论独居

是的,我不会改变我的观点:避开多数人,避开少数人,甚至避开个人。

他们说,克瑞,我在前一封信中提到的斯蒂尔博的门徒,注意到有个年轻人独自走过,问他独自在做什么。“我在和自己交流,”年轻人回答,“那么请小心点,”克瑞说,“留心;你正和一个坏人交流!”

当人们悲伤或害怕某事时,我们习惯于观察他们,以防止他们错误地利用他们的孤独。

任何轻率的人都不应该被孤立;在这种情况下,他们只会策划愚蠢的行为,为自己或他人积累未来的危险;他们发挥自己的基本欲望;心神显示出恐惧或羞耻曾经压抑过的东西;它刺激他们的勇气,激发他们的激情,激起他们的愤怒。

最后,孤独所带来的唯一事处,即不相信任何人、不害怕目击者的习惯,已经被愚人遗忘了,因为他们背叛了自己。

因此,请注意我对你的希望是什么——不,相反,我对自己的承诺是什么,因为希望只是一个不确定的祝福的标题:我不知道我更希望你与谁交往,你以您自己。

你不是许多人中的一个,你关心的是你的实际福利。
用这种方式说话和生活;注意不要让任何事情让你失望。

至于你以前的祷告,你可以免除神的应允;提供新的祈祷;为健全的心灵和健康祈祷,首先是灵魂,然后是身体,当然你应该经常做这些祈祷。

大胆地召唤神;你不会要求别人的祈祷。

但是,按照我的习惯,我必须随信寄一份小礼物;这是我在阿瑟诺多罗斯身上找到的一句真话:

“要知道,当你达到这样一个地步,你除了可以公开祈祷的东西外,什么也不向神祈祷时,你就从所有的欲望中解脱了。”

但是现在的人是多么愚蠢啊!,他们向天堂低语最卑鄙的祈祷;但如果有人听了,他们立刻就沉默了;他们不愿意让人们知道的事情,他们会与上帝沟通。

生活在人与人之间,仿佛众神注视着你;与上帝交谈时,就像众人们都在倾听一样。

再会。

塞内卡,坚道学。

9. How to be Self-Sufficient ?

‘If you would be loved, love.’

The Wise One is in want of nothing, & yet needs many things.

On Philosophy & Friendship

Epicurus rebukes those who hold that the wise person is self-sufficient & for that reason does not stand in need of friendships.

This is the objection raised by Epicurus against Stilbo & those who believe that the Supreme Good is a soul which is insensible to feeling.

For it may be understood in the meaning the opposite to that which we wish it to have. What we mean to express is, a soul which rejects any sensation of evil; but people will interpret the idea as that of a soul which can endure no evil.

There is this difference between ourselves & the other school: our ideal wise person feels their troubles, but overcomes them; their wise person does not even feel them.

We & they alike hold this idea, – that the wise person is self-sufficient; Nevertheless, One desires friends, neighbours, & associates, no matter how much one is sufficient unto oneself.

Mark how self-sufficient One is; for on occasion one can be content with a part of oneself. If one lose a hand through disease, or if some accident puts out their eyes, one will be satisfied with what is left, taking as much pleasure in their impaired & maimed body as one took when it was sound.

While one does not pine for these parts if they are missing, one prefers not to lose them. In this sense the wise person is self-sufficient, that they can do without friends, not that they desire to do without them.

When I say “can,” I mean this: One endures the loss of a friend with equanimity. They need never lack friends, for it lies in their own control how soon they shall make good a loss.

Hecato, says: :

‘If you would be loved, love.’

Now there is great pleasure, not only in maintaining old & established friendships, but also in beginning & acquiring new ones. There is the same difference between winning a new friend & having already won them, as there is between the farmer who sows & the farmer who reaps.

Philosopher Attalus used to say: “It is more pleasant to make than to keep a friend, as it is more pleasant to the artist to paint than to have finished painting.”

When one is busy & absorbed in one’s work, the very absorption affords great delight; but when one has withdrawn their hand from the completed masterpiece, the pleasure is not so keen.

Henceforth it is the fruits of one’s art that one enjoys; it was the art itself that one enjoyed while one was painting.

In the case of our children, their young adulthood yields the more abundant fruits, but their infancy was sweeter.

One who regards oneself only, & enters upon friendships for this reason, reckons wrongly. The end will be like the beginning: One has made friends with one who might assist them out of bondage; at the first rattle of the chain such a friend will desert them.

These are the so-called “fair-weather” friendships; one who is chosen for the sake of utility will be satisfactory only so long as one is useful.

The beginning & the end cannot but harmonize. One who begins to be your friend because it pays will also cease because it pays.

For what purpose, then, do I make a person my friend? In order to have someone for whom I may die, whom I may follow into exile?

The friendship which you portray is a bargain & not a friendship; it regards convenience only, & looks to the results.

Beyond question the feeling of a lover has in it something akin to friendship; one might call it friendship run mad. But, though this is true, does anyone love for the sake of gain, or renown?

Pure love, careless of all other things, kindles the soul with desire for the beautiful object, not without the hope of a return of the affection.

You may retort: “We are not now discussing the question whether friendship is to be cultivated for its own sake.” On the contrary, nothing more urgently requires demonstration; for if friendship is to be sought for its own sake, one may seek it who is self-sufficient.

“How, then,” you ask, “does one seek it?” Precisely as one seeks an object of great beauty, not attracted to it by desire for gain, nor yet frightened by the instability of Fortune.

One who seeks friendship for favourable occasions, strips it of all its nobility.

“The wise person is self-sufficient.” This phrase, my dear Lucilius, is incorrectly explained by many; for they withdraw the wise person from the world, & force them to dwell within their own skin.

We must mark with care what this sentence signifies & how far it applies; the wise person is sufficient unto themselves for a happy existence, but not for mere existence.

I should like also to state to you one of the distinctions of Chrysippus who declares that,

The Wise One is in want of nothing, & yet needs many things.

“On the other hand,” they say, “nothing is needed by the fool, for they do not understand how to use anything, but they are in want of everything.”

Wise people need hands, eyes, & many things that are necessary for their daily use; but they are in want of nothing. For want implies a necessity, & nothing is necessary to the wise Ones.

Therefore, although one is self-sufficient, yet one has need of friends. One craves as many friends as possible, not, however, that one may live happily; for one will live happily even without friends.

Supreme Good calls for no practical aids from outside; it is developed at home, & arises entirely within itself. If the good seeks any portion of itself from without, it begins to be subject to the play of Fortune.

People may say: “But what sort of existence will the wise person have, if they be left friendless when thrown into prison, or when stranded in some foreign nation?”

One’s life will be like that of Jupiter, who, amid the dissolution of the world, when the gods are confounded together & Nature rests for a space from its work, can retire into oneself & give themselves over to their own thoughts.

In some such way as this the sage will act; they will retreat into themselves, & live with themselves.

As long as one is allowed to order their affairs according to their judgment, one is self-sufficient – & marries a partner; one is self-sufficient – & brings up children; one is self-sufficient – & yet could not live if one had to live without the society of people.

Natural promptings, & not, one’s own selfish needs, draw one into friendships. For just as other things have for us an inherent attractiveness, so has friendship.

As we hate solitude & crave society, as nature draws people to each other, so in this matter also there is an attraction which makes us desirous of friendship.

For Stilbo, after his country was captured & his children & his wife lost, as he emerged from the general desolation alone & yet happy, spoke as follows to Demetrius, called Sacker of Cities because of the destruction he brought upon them, in answer to the question whether he had lost anything: “I have all my goods with me!”

Here is indeed, a brave & stout-hearted person for you! The enemy conquered, but Stilbo conquered his conqueror. “I have lost nothing!” Aye, he forced Demetrius to wonder whether he himself had conquered after all. “My goods are all with me!” In other words, he deemed nothing that might be taken from him to be a good.

Do you understand now how much easier it is to conquer a whole tribe than to conquer one man?

This saying of Stilbo makes common ground with Stoicism; the Stoic also can carry their goods unimpaired through cities that have been burned to ashes; for they are self-sufficient. Such are the bounds which they set to their own happiness.

You must not think that our school alone can utter noble words; Epicurus himself, the reviler of Stilbo, spoke similar language;

“Whoever does not regard what one has as most ample wealth, is unhappy, though one be master of the whole world.”

Or, if the following seems to you a more suitable phrase, – for we must try to render the meaning & not the mere words:
“A person may rule the world & still be unhappy, if one does not feel that one is supremely happy.”

In order, however, that you may know that these sentiments are universal, suggested, of course, by Nature, you will find in one of the comic poets this verse:

Unblest is one who thinks oneself unblest.

For what does your condition matter, if it is bad in your own eyes?

You may say: “What then? If yonder people, rich by base means, shall call themselves happy, will their own opinion make them happy?”

It matters not what one says, but what one feels; also, not how one feels on one particular day, but how one feels at all times.

There is no reason, however, why you should fear that this great privilege will fall into unworthy hands; only the wise one is pleased with one’s own.

Folly is ever troubled with weariness of itself.

Farewell.

Seneca, StoicTaoist.

如何-自立自足?

“如果你想被爱,就去爱。”

智者什么都不缺,但需要很多东西。

论哲学与友谊

伊壁鸠鲁谴责那些认为智者是自立自足的人&因此不需要友谊。

这就是伊壁鸠鲁对斯蒂尔博提出的反对意见&那些认为至高无上的善是一个对感觉不敏感-灵魂的人。

因为它可能被理解为与我们所希望-相反的意思。我们要表达的意思是,一个拒绝任何邪恶感觉的灵魂;但是人们会把这个想法理解为一个不能忍受邪恶的灵魂。

我们和其他学派之间有这样的区别:我们理想中的智者能感受到他们的烦恼,但能克服它们;他们的智者甚至感觉不到烦恼。

我们&他们都持有这样的观点,即智者是自立自足的;然而,一个人渴望朋友、邻居和伙伴,无论他自己有多充足。

标记一个人的自立自足程度;因为有时候一个人可以满足于自己任何的一部分。如果一个人因为疾病失去了一只手,或者某次事故使他失去了眼睛,他会对剩下的部份感到满意,对他受损和残废的身体享受的快乐与他健全时一样多。

如果这些部份不见了,人们不会怀念它们,但人们更愿意不失去它们。从这个意义上说,智者是自立自足的,他们可以没有朋友,而不是他们想没有朋友。

当我说“可以”时,我的意思是:一个人平静地忍受失去朋友的痛苦。他们永远不需要缺少朋友,因为他们能控制如何弥补损失。

赫卡托说:

“如果你想被爱,就去爱。”

极大的乐趣,不仅是维持旧有的友谊,又如开始和获得新的友谊。赢得一个新朋友和已经赢得他们之间有着相同的区别,就像播种的农民和收割的农民之间有着相同的区别。

哲学家阿塔罗斯曾经说过:“交朋友比守护朋友更令人愉快,如同画家画画时比完成画画更令人愉快。”

当一个人忙着全神贯注于自己的工作时,全神贯注就能带来极大的快乐;但当一个人从完成的杰作中抽出手来时,快乐就不那么强烈了。

从今往后,你所享受的是你的艺术成果;当一个人在绘画时,他喜欢的是艺术本身。

就我们的孩子而言,他们年轻&成年期结出了更多的果实,但他们的幼年期更甜美。

一个只考虑自己的人,因为这个原因而建立友谊的人,估计是错误的。结局会像开始一样:一个人与一个可以帮助他们摆脱束缚的人交上了朋友;这种朋友一听到牢铐的响声就会抛弃他们。

这就是所谓的“晴天霹雳”友谊;为了实用而选择的人只有在有用的情况下才会令人满意。

开始和结束不能不协调。一个因为付出而开始成为你朋友的人也会因为付出而停止。

那么,我把一个人当作朋友是出于什么目的呢?为了有一个人,我可以为他而死,我可以跟随他流亡?

你所描绘的友谊是一种交易&不是友谊;它只考虑方便性,并期待结果。

毫无疑问,恋人的感觉有点类似于友谊;有人可能会称之为“友谊疯了”。但是,尽管这是真的,有没有人为了利益或名誉而爱呢?

纯洁的爱,不在乎其他一切,点燃了灵魂对美好事物的渴望,而不是有没有爱的回报的希望。

你可以反驳说:“我们现在不是在讨论是否应该为了友谊而培养友谊的问题。”相反,没有什么比这更迫切需要证明的了;因为如果为了友谊而寻求友谊,那么谁能自足,谁就可以寻求友谊。

“那么,”你会问,“一个人是如何寻找它的呢?”这正是一个人寻找一个伟大的美的对象,而不是被利益的欲望所吸引,也不是被命运的不稳定所吓倒。

在有利的场合寻求友谊的人,会剥夺友谊的高贵。

“智者是自立自足的。”这句话,我亲爱的卢西柳斯,被许多人错误地解释了;因为他们把智者从世界上撤回,迫使他们住在自己的皮肤里。

我们必须小心地标明这句话的含义&它适用的范围有多广;聪明的人能够满足自己的幸福生活,但不仅仅是生存。

我还想向你们说明克里西普的一个特点,他宣称,

智者什么都不缺,但需要很多东西。

“另一方面,”他们说,“愚人不需要任何东西,因为他们不知道如何使用任何东西,但他们却一切都要。”

聪明的人需要手、眼睛和许多日常所需的东西;但他们什么都不缺。因为匮乏意味着需要,聪明人什么都不需要。

因此,虽然一个人是自立自足的,但他需要朋友。一个人渴望尽可能多的朋友,然而,这并不意味着一个人就应此幸福;因为一个人即使没有朋友也会幸福地生活。

至善不需要外界的实际援助;它是在从内发起来的,完全是在自身内部产生的。如果善需从外部寻求,它就开始受制于命运的摆布。

人们可能会说:“但是,如果智者被关进监狱或被困在某个异国时没有朋友,他们会有什么样的生活呢?”

一个人的生活将像‘住庇特’一样,在世界解体的过程中,当众神混杂在一起&大自然从中休息了,他可以隐退到自己中,让自己进入自己的思想中。

圣人会以这样的方式行事;他们会隐退,与自己生活在一起。

只要一个人被允许根据自己的判断来安排自己的事务,他就可以自立自足&与伴侣结婚;一个是自立自足&抚养孩子;一个人是自立自足的&然而,如果一个人不得不离开人的社会生活,他就无法生存。

自然的刺激,而不是个人的自私需要,会把人吸引到友谊中来。正如其他事物对我们具有内在的吸引力一样,友谊也是如此。

正如我们讨厌孤独,渴望社交,就像大自然吸引人们彼此一样,在这件事上,也有一种吸引力使我们渴望友谊。

因为斯蒂尔博,在他的国家被俘、他的孩子和他的妻子已失后,当他独自一人从普遍的荒凉中走出来时,却很高兴,他对德米特里厄斯说了以下话,德米特里厄斯因给城市带来的破坏而被称为城市的萨克尔,回答他是否丢失了任何东西的问题:“我所有的一切都在身边!”

这的确是一个勇敢而坚强的人!敌人征服了,但史迪博征服了他的征服者。“我什么也没失去!”是的,他强迫德米特里厄斯怀疑他自己到底是否已经征服了。“我的一切都在我身边!”换句话说,他认为任何可能从他身上拿走的东西都不是好东西。

你现在明白征服整个部落比征服一个人容易多了吗?

斯蒂尔博的这句话与斯多葛主义有共同点;斯多葛派也可以在被烧成灰烬的城市中携带他们的已切,不受损害;因为他们是自立自足的。这就是他们为自己的幸福设定的界限。

你千万不要以为只有我们校派才能说出高尚的话语;伊壁鸠鲁本人,斯蒂尔博的诽谤者,也说了类似的言语;

“谁不把自己拥有的视为最丰富的财富,谁就不快乐,尽管他是全世界的主人。”

或者,如果你觉得下面这句话更合适的话,——因为我们必须努力表达意思&而不仅仅是文字:

“一个人可以统治世界&如果一个人不觉得自己非常幸福,他仍然不幸福。”

然而,为了让你知道这些情感是普遍的,自然地,你会在其中一位喜剧诗人的诗中发现:

没福的人,是因自认没福的人。

如果你自己认为情况不好,那么你的情况又有何关系呢?

你可能会说:“那怎么办?如果某些人,以卑鄙的手段富有,称自己幸福,他们自己的意见会使他们幸福吗?”

重要的不是说什么,而是感觉如何;而且,不是一个人在某一天的感受,而是一个人在任何时候的感受。

然而,你没有理由担心这一巨大的特权会落入不值得拥有的手中;只有聪明的人才喜欢自己的。

愚蠢总是因自身的厌倦而烦恼。

再会。

塞内卡,坚道学。

8. What is Fortune & Chance?

What Chance has made yours, is not really yours.
Fortune; for we think that we hold them in our grasp, but they hold us in theirs. 

On the Philosopher’s Seclusion

“Do you bid me,” you say, “shun the throng, & withdraw from people, & be content with my own conscience? Where are the counsels of your school, which order a person to die in the midst of active work?”

As to the course which I seem to you to be urging on you now & then, my object in shutting myself up & locking the door is to be able to help a greater number.

I never spend a day in idleness; I appropriate even a part of the night for study.

I do not allow time for sleep but yield to it when I must, & when my eyes are wearied with waking & ready to fall shut, I keep them at their task. 

I have withdrawn not only from people, but from affairs, especially from my own affairs; I am working for later generations, writing down some ideas that may be of assistance to them.

There are certain wholesome counsels, which may be compared to prescriptions of useful drugs; these I am putting into writing; for I have found them helpful in ministering to my own sores, which, if not wholly cured, have at any rate ceased to spread.

I point other people to the right path, which I have found late in life, when wearied with wandering.
I cry out to them: “Avoid whatever pleases the throng: avoid the gifts of Chance!

Halt before every good which Chance brings to you, in a spirit of doubt & fear; for it is the animals & fish that are deceived by tempting hopes.

Do you call these things the ‘gifts’ of Fortune? They are snares.

Any one among you who wishes to live a life of safety will avoid, to the utmost of their power, these limed twigs of its favour, by which we mortals, most wretched in this respect also, are deceived;

Fortune: for we think that we hold them in our grasp, but they hold us in theirs. 

Such a career leads us into precipitous ways, & life on such heights ends in a fall.

Moreover, we cannot even stand up against prosperity when it begins to drive us to leeward; nor can we go down, either, ‘with the ship at least on its course,’ or once for all; Fortune does not capsize us, – it plunges our bows under & dashes us on the rocks.

“Hold fast, then, to this sound & wholesome rule of life; that you indulge the body only so far as is needful for good health. The body should be treated more rigorously, that it may not be disobedient to the mind.

Eat merely to relieve your hunger; drink merely to quench your thirst; dress merely to keep out the cold; house yourself merely as a protection against personal discomfort.

It matters little whether the house be built of turf, or of variously coloured imported marble; understand that a person is sheltered just as well by a thatch as by a roof of gold.

Despise everything that useless toil creates as an ornament & an object of beauty.

Reflect that nothing except the soul is worthy of wonder; for to the soul, if it be great, naught is great.”

When I commune in such terms with myself & with future generations, do you not think that I am doing more good than when I appear as counsel in court, or stamp my seal upon a will, or lend my assistance in the senate, by word or action, to a candidate?

Believe me, those who seem to be busied with nothing are busied with the greater tasks; they are dealing at the same time with things mortal & things immortal.

But I must stop, & pay my customary contribution, to balance this letter. The payment shall not be made from my own property; for I am still conning Epicurus.

I read to-day, the following sentence: “If you would enjoy real freedom, you must be the slave of Philosophy.” The person who submits & surrenders themselves to it is not kept waiting; One is emancipated on the spot.

For the very service of Philosophy is freedom.

I recall that you yourself expressed this idea much more happily & concisely:

What Chance has made yours, is not really yours.
The good that could be given, can be removed.

Farewell.

Seneca, StoicTaoist.

什么是财富与巧合?

巧合带来的机遇,不是真正属于你的。
财富;当我们以为我们抓住了它,它已牢牢扣住了我们。

论哲学家的隐逸

“你吩咐我,”你说,“避开人群,远离人群,满足于我自己的良心吗?你的顾问在哪里,当他命令一个人,终止正在积极工作的人群?”

至于我现在和那时似乎在敦促你们采取的行动,我闭嘴锁门的目的是为了能够帮助更多的人。

我从不在闲散中度过一天;我甚至拨出一部分时间学习。

我不允许有时间睡觉,但在我必须睡觉的时候,当我的眼睛因醒来而疲倦,准备闭上时,我会让他们续时闭上。

我不仅远离人们,也远离事务,尤其是我自己的事务;我为后代工作,写下一些可能对他们有帮助的想法。

有一些有益健康的建议,可以与有用药物的处方相比较;这些我正在写下来;因为我发现它们有助于治疗我自己的疮,这些疮即使不能完全治愈,至少已经停止蔓延。

我为别人指出了正确的道路,这是我在晚年厌倦了流浪时发现的。

我向他们喊道:“避开群众喜欢的任何东西:避开巧合的礼物!

带着怀疑和恐惧的精神,在巧合带给你的每一件好事面前停下脚步,因为正是动物和鱼被诱人的希望所欺骗。

你称这些东西为巧合的“财富”吗?它们是陷阱。

你们中间任何一个希望过上安全生活的人,都会尽最大的努力避免这些对他们有利的石灰树枝,我们这些在这方面最不幸的人也会被这些树枝所欺骗,

财富: 正当我们认为已抓住了它,但它却已牢牢抓住了我们。

这样的职业将我们引向险峻的道路&在这样的高度上的生活以失败告终。

此外,当繁荣开始将我们推向背风时,我们甚至无法抵御它;我们也无法“至少在船的航向上”或永远地沉下去;命运不会倾覆我们——它会把我们的船头压下去,把我们撞在岩石上。

“那么,坚持这一健康的生活法则;你只在身体健康所需的范围内放纵身体。身体应该受到更严格的对待,这样它就不会违背精神。

吃东西只是为了减轻饥饿;喝酒只是为了解渴;穿衣服只是为了御寒;房子仅仅是为了防止个人的不适。

房子是用草皮建造还是用各种颜色的进口大理石建造都无关紧要;要明白,茅草屋和黄金屋顶一样可以庇护一个人。

鄙视一切无用的辛劳创造出来的装饰品和美丽的东西。

思考除了灵魂之外,没有什么值得惊奇;因为对于灵魂来说,如果它伟大,那么什么都不能相比。”

当我以这样的方式与自己和子孙后代交流时,你不认为我做得比我作为律师出庭、在遗嘱上盖章、或在参议院以言语或行动协助某位候选人更好吗?

相信我,那些似乎无所事事的人正忙于更大的任务;他们同时在处理凡人和不朽的事物。

但我必须停下来,支付我惯常的捐款,以平衡这封信。这笔钱不能用我自己的财产支付,因为我仍然在欺骗伊壁鸠鲁。

我今天在他的作品中读到了这样一句话:“如果你想享受真正的自由,你必须是哲学的奴隶。”向哲学屈服和投降的人不会一直等待,而是当场获得解放。

因为哲学的服务就是自由。

我记得你自己表达这一想法时更为高兴和简洁:

巧合成就的你,其实不是你的。

可以给予的财富,也可以被夺走。

再会。

塞内卡,坚道学。

7. Why not to seek Crowds? 为何不寻找人群呢?

Do not copy the bad simply because they are many,

Nor hate the many because they are unlike you.

On Crowds

Do you ask me what you should regard as especially to be avoided? I say,

crowds;

for as yet you cannot trust yourself to them with safety.

I shall admit my own weakness, at any rate; for I never bring back home the same character that I took abroad with me. Something of that which I have forced to be calm within me is disturbed; some of the foes that I have routed return again.

To consort with the crowd is harmful;

there is no person who does not make some vice attractive to us, or stamp it upon us, or taint us unconsciously therewith.

Certainly, the greater the mob with which we mingle, the greater the danger.

But nothing is so damaging to good character as the habit of lounging at the games; for then it is that vice steals subtly upon one through the avenue of pleasure. 

What do you think I mean? I mean that I come home more greedy, more ambitious, more voluptuous, & even more cruel & inhuman,

– because I have been among human beings.

Come now; do you not understand even this truth, that a bad example reacts on the agent?

The young character, which cannot hold fast to righteousness, must be rescued from the mob; it is too easy to side with the majority.

Even Socrates, Cato, & Laelius might have been shaken in their moral strength by a crowd that was unlike them; so true it is that none of us, no matter how much One cultivates their abilities, can withstand the shock of faults that approach, as it were, with so great a retinue. 

Much harm is done by a single case of indulgence or greed;

the familiar friend, if they be luxurious, weakens & softens us imperceptibly;

the neighbour, if they be rich, rouses our covetousness;

the companion, if they be slanderous, rubs off some of their rust upon us, even though we be spotless & sincere.

What then do you think the effect will be on character, when the world at large assaults it!

You must either imitate or loathe the world.

But both courses are to be avoided;

you should not copy the bad simply because they are many,

nor should you hate the many because they are unlike you.

Withdraw into yourself, as far as you can. Associate with those who will make a better person of you. Welcome those whom you yourself can improve. The process is mutual; for people learn while they teach. 

There is no reason why pride in advertising your abilities should lure you into publicity, so that you should desire to recite or harangue before the general public.

One or two individuals will perhaps come in your way, but even these will have to be molded & trained by you so that they will understand you.

You may say: “For what purpose did I learn all these things?”

But you need not fear that you have wasted your efforts;

it was for yourself that you learned them.

In order, however, that I may not to-day have learned exclusively for myself, I shall share with you three excellent sayings, of the same general purport, which have come to my attention.

This letter will give you one of them as payment of my debt; the other two you may accept as a contribution in advance.

Democritus says:

“One person means as much to me as a multitude, & a multitude only as much as one person.” 

The following; they asked them what was the object of all this study applied to an art that would reach but very few. They replied:

“I am content with few, content with one, content with none at all.”

The third saying – & a noteworthy one, too – is by Epicurus:

“I write this not for the many, but for you; each of us is enough of an audience for the other.” 

Lay these words to heart, Lucilius, that you may scorn the pleasure which comes from the applause of the majority. Many people praise you; but have you any reason for being pleased with yourself, if you are a person whom the many can understand?

Your good qualities should face inwards.

Farewell。

Stoic, Seneca, StoicTaoist。

为何不寻找人群呢?

不要简单地抄袭它,只 因为它是多数,

也不要因为它与你不同,而憎恨他们。

在人群中

你问我你认为什么是特别应该避免的?我说,

人群;

因为到目前为止,你还不能把自己安全地交给他们。

无论如何,我要承认我自己的弱点;因为我从来没有把我带到外的那性格带回来。我强迫内心平静的东西被扰乱了;我击溃的那些敌人又回来了。

与群众交涉是有害的;

没有人不让某些恶习而吸引,或不把它印在身上,或不自觉地玷污了我们。

当然,我们与之交往的人群越多,危险就越大。

但是,没有什么比在会上,懒洋洋的习惯更能损害良好的品行了;因为正是这样,恶习通过欲乐之路潜移默化地向人袭来。

你认为我是什么意思?我的意思是我回家后更贪婪,更野心勃勃,更淫荡,甚至更残忍,更不人道,

–因为我于人群中交涉。

现在;你难道连这个事实都不明白吗,一个坏榜样会对人产生影响?

不能坚守正义的年轻人必须从暴民中解救出来;站在大多数人一边太容易了。

即使是苏格拉底、卡托和莱利厄斯,他们的道德力量也可能会被一群与他们不同的人所动摇;诚然,无论我们如何培养自己的能力,我们中没有一个人能够承受如此庞大的随从所带来的失误的冲击。

纵容或贪婪的单一案例造成了巨大的伤害;

好朋友,如果他们很奢侈,会在不知不觉中削弱和软化我们;

邻居如果富有,就会激起我们的贪婪;

即使我们一尘不染、诚恳,同伴如果诽谤我们,也会在我们身上留下一些污垢。

那么,当整个世界都在攻击人格时,你认为人格会受到什么样的影响呢!

你要么模仿世界,要么厌恶世界。

但这两条路都要避免;

你不要简单地抄袭它,只因为它是多数,

你也不要因为它与你不同,而憎恨他们。

尽你所能地融入自己。与那些能使你成为更好的人交往。欢迎那些你自己可以改进的人。这个过程是相互的;因为我们边教边学。

没有理由为你的能力做选传而感到自豪,只为吸引公众的视线,儿你渴望在公众面前朗诵或高谈阔论。

可能会有一两个人认同你,但即使是这些人也必须由你塑造和训练,以便他们理解你。

你可能会说:“我学习这些东西的目的是什么?”

但是你不必担心你浪费了你的努力;

你是为自己而学。

然而,为了使我今天不至于只为自己而学,我将与你们分享我注意到的三句具有同样普遍意义的绝妙格言。

这封信将给你其中一封作为我的债务偿还;另外两个您可以提前接受作为供款。

德谟克利特说:

“对我来说,一个人和一大群人一样重要,一大群人只和一个人一样重要。”

以下内容:;他们问,这项研究的目的是什么,应用于一门艺术,但涉及面很小。他们回答说:

“我满足于少数人,满足于一人,满足于一无所有。”

第三句话——也是一句值得注意的话——出自伊壁鸠鲁之手:

“我写这篇文章不是为了很多人,而是为了你;你我是对方的听众足已。”

卢西柳斯,把这些话牢记在心,这样你就可以蔑视来自大多数人掌声的喜悦。许多人赞美你;但是,如果你是一个大多数人都能理解的人,你有什么理由对自己感到满意吗?

你的优秀品质应该面向内心。

再会。

斯多葛,塞内卡,坚道学。

6. How to Share ? 如何分享?

Nothing is pleasant to possess, without someone to share.

Many lacked not a friend, but a friendship.

The living voice & the intimacy of a common life will help you more than the written word.

First, because people put more faith in their eyes than in their ears, &
Second, because the way is long if one follows precepts,
– but short & helpful, if one follows patterns.

On Sharing Knowledge

I feel, my dear Lucilius, that I am being not only reformed, but transformed.

I do not yet, however, assure myself, or indulge the hope, that there are no elements left in me which need to be changed.

Of course there are many that should be made more compact, or made thinner, or be brought into greater prominence.

And indeed this very fact is proof that my spirit is altered into something better, – that it can see its own faults, of which it was previously ignorant.

I therefore wish to impart to you this sudden change in myself; I should then begin to place a surer trust in our friendship,

– the true friendship which hope & fear & self-interest cannot sever, the friendship in which & for the sake of which people meet death.

I can show you many who have lacked, not a friend, but a friendship;

this, however, cannot possibly happen when souls are drawn together by identical inclinations into an alliance of honourable desires.

And why can it not happen?
Because in such cases people know that they have all things in common, especially their troubles.

You cannot conceive what distinct progress I notice that each day brings to me.

And when you say: “Give me also a share in these gifts which you have found so helpful,”
I reply that I am anxious to heap all these privileges upon you, & that I am glad to learn in order that I may teach.

Nothing will ever please me, no matter how excellent or beneficial, if I must retain the knowledge of it to myself.

And if wisdom were given me under the express condition that it must be kept hidden & not uttered, I should refuse it.

No good thing is pleasant to possess, without friends to share it.

I shall therefore send to you the actual books; & in order that you may not waste time in searching here & there for profitable topics, I shall mark certain passages, so that you can turn at once to those which I approve and admire.

Of course, however, the living voice & the intimacy of a common life will help you more than the written word.

You must go to the scene of action,
first, because people put more faith in their eyes than in their ears, &
second, because the way is long if one follows precepts, but short & helpful, if one follows patterns.

Cleanthes could not have been the express image of Zeno, if One had merely heard his lectures;
he shared in his life, saw into his hidden purposes, & watched him to see whether he lived according to his own rules.

Plato, Aristotle, & the whole throng of sages who were destined to go each their different way, derived more benefit from the character than from the words of Socrates.

It was not the class-room of Epicurus, but living together under the same roof, that made great sages of Metrodorus, Hermarchus, & Polyaenus.

Therefore I summon you, not merely that you may derive benefit, but that you may confer benefit; for we can assist each other greatly.

Meanwhile, I owe you my little daily contribution; you shall be told what pleased me to-day in the writings of Hecato;

That was indeed a great benefit; such a person can never be alone.

it is these words:

I have begun to be a friend to myself.

Farewell。

Stoic, Seneca, StoicTaoist。

如何分享?

如没有人分享,没有什么是值得拥有的。

许多人缺少的不是朋友,而是友谊。

生活知音和普通生活的亲密感比文字对你的帮助更大。

首先,因为人们对眼睛比对耳朵更信任

第二,因为遵守戒律的路是漫长的,

-但是,如果一个人遵循模式的话,简短而有用。

论知识共享

亲爱的卢西利乌斯,我觉得我不仅在改造,而且在被改造。

然而,我还不能向自己保证,也不能放纵自己的希望,我的内心没有任何需要改变的因素。

当然,也有许多需要做得更紧凑、更薄或更突出。

事实上,正是这一事实证明了我的精神被改变成了更好的东西——它可以看到自己的错误,而它以前对此一无所知。

因此,我希望告诉你们我自己的这种突然变化;然后我应该开始更加信任我们的友谊,

——希望、恐惧和私利无法割断的真正友谊,人们在其中为之死亡的友谊。

我可以向你们展示许多人所缺少的,不是朋友,而是友谊;

然而,这不可能发生,当灵魂被相同的倾向拉到一起,成为一个高尚欲望的联盟。

为什么不能发生呢?

因为在这种情况下,人们知道他们有所有的共同点,特别是他们的烦恼。

你无法想象我注意到的每一天给我带来的显著进步。

当你说:“也给我一份你觉得非常有用的礼物吧,”

我回答说,我急于把所有这些特权都加在你们身上,我很高兴学习,以便我可以教学。

如果我必须把它的知识留给自己,无论它多么优秀或有益,都不会让我高兴。

如果智慧是在明确的条件下给予我的,而它必须隐藏起来&不能说出来,我会拒绝它。

没有朋友分享的东西,是不会令人愉快的。

因此,我将向您送实际的书籍;&为了不让你们浪费时间到处寻找有利可图的话题,我将标记某些段落,以便你们可以立即转向我赞同和钦佩的段落。

当然,生活的知音&普通生活中的亲密感对你的帮助远大于文字。

你必须行动,

首先,因为人们对眼睛比对耳朵更信任

第二,因为如果一个人遵循戒律,道路是漫长的,但是如果一个人遵循生活式,道路是短暂而有益的。

如果一个人仅仅听了芝诺的演讲,那么克朗提斯就不可能成为芝诺的形象;

他分享自己的生活,了解自己隐藏的目的,观察自己是否按照自己的规则生活。

柏拉图、亚里士多德和所有注定要各奔前程的圣人,都从这个人物身上得到了比苏格拉底的话更多的好处。

这不是伊壁鸠鲁的教室,而是住在同一个屋檐下,造就了Metrodorus、Hermarchus和Polyaenus的伟大圣人。

所以我召你来,不仅是要你得益,也是因为我们可以互相帮助而得益。

同时,我还欠你我每天的一点贡献;今天,我会用赫卡托的著作告诉你我喜欢的东西;

这确实是一大好处;这样的人永远不会孤单。

是这样的话:

我已经开始成为自己的朋友。

再会。

斯多葛,塞内卡,坚道学。

3. How to be Friends ?

One who reposes should act & One who acts should take repose.

When friendship is settled, you must trust; before friendship is formed, you must pass judgment.

How to be friends ?
Pass Judgment & Trust.

True and False Friendship.

You have sent a letter to me through the hand of a “friend” of yours.
And in your very next sentence you warn me not to discuss with them all the matters that concern you, saying that even you yourself are not accustomed to do this; in other words, you have in the same letter affirmed & denied that they are your friends. 

Now if you used this word of ours in the popular sense, & called them “friend” in the same way in which we speak of all candidates for election as “honourable persons,” and as we greet all people whom we meet casually, if their names slip us for the moment, with the salutation “my dear,” – so be it.

But if you consider anyone a friend whom you do not trust as you trust yourself, you are mightily mistaken & you do not sufficiently understand what true friendship means.

Indeed, I would have you discuss everything with a friend; but first of all discuss the person themselves.

When friendship is settled, you must trust; before friendship is formed, you must pass judgment.

Those people indeed put last first & confound their duties, who, violating the rules of Theophrastus, judge a person after they have made them their friends, instead of making them their friends after they have judged them.

Ponder for a long time whether you shall admit a given person to your friendship; but when you have decided to admit them, welcome them with all your heart & soul. Speak as boldly with them as with yourself. 

As to yourself, although you should live in such a way that you trust your own self with nothing which you could not entrust even to your enemy, yet, since certain matters occur which convention keeps secret, you should share with a friend at least all your worries & reflections.

Regard them as loyal, & you will make them loyal.

Some, for example, fearing to be deceived, have taught people to deceive; by their suspicions they have given their friends the right to do wrong.

Why need I keep back any words in the presence of my friend?
Why should I not regard myself as alone when in their company?

There is a class of people who communicate, to anyone whom they meet, matters which should be revealed to friends alone, & unload upon the chance listener whatever irks them.

Others, again, fear to confide in their closest intimates; & if it were possible, they would not trust even themselves, burying their secrets deep in their hearts.

But we should do neither.
It is equally faulty to trust everyone & to trust no one.
Yet the former fault is, I should say, the more ingenuous, the latter the more safe. 

In like manner you should rebuke these two kinds of people,
– both those who always lack repose, & those who are always in repose.

For love of bustle is not industry,
– it is only the restlessness of a hunted mind.

And true repose does not consist in condemning all motion as merely vexation; that kind of repose is slackness & inertia. 

Therefore, you should note the following saying, taken from my reading in Pomponius:
“Some people shrink into dark corners, to such a degree that they see darkly by day.”

No, people should combine these tendencies, &


One who reposes should act & One who acts should take repose.

Discuss the problem with Nature;


Nature will tell you that it has created both day & night.

FareWell。

Stoic, Seneca, StoicTaoist。

2. What is Enough ?

StoicTaoist

When being Everywhere means Nowhere.
Having what is necessary, is to have what is enough.

Discursiveness in Reading.

Judging by what you write me, and by what I hear, I am forming a good opinion regarding your future.

You do not run hither and thither and distract yourself by changing your abode;
for such restlessness is the sign of a disordered spirit.

The primary indication, to my thinking, of a well-ordered mind is a man’s ability to remain in one place and linger in his own company. 

Be careful, however, lest this reading of many authors and books of every sort may tend to make you discursive and unsteady.

You must linger among a limited number of master-thinkers, and digest their works,
if you would derive ideas which shall win firm hold in your mind.

Everywhere means nowhere.

When a person spends all his time in foreign travel, he ends by having many acquaintances, but no friends.

And the same thing must hold true of men who seek intimate acquaintance with no single author, but visit them all in a hasty and hurried manner. 

Food does no good and is not assimilated into the body if it leaves the stomach as soon as it is eaten;
nothing hinders a cure so much as frequent change of medicine;
no wound will heal when one salve is tried after another;
a plant which is often moved can never grow strong.

There is nothing so efficacious that it can be helpful while it is being shifted about.
And in reading of many books is distraction.

Accordingly, since you cannot read all the books which you may possess,
it is enough to possess only as many books as you can read. 

“But,” you reply, “I wish to dip first into one book and then into another.”

I tell you that it is the sign of an overnice appetite to toy with many dishes;
for when they are manifold and varied, they cloy but do not nourish.

So you should always read standard authors;
and when you crave a change, fall back upon those whom you read before.

Each day acquire something that will fortify you against poverty,
against death, indeed against other misfortunes as well;
and after you have run over many thoughts, select one to be thoroughly digested that day. 

This is my own custom; from the many things which I have read, I claim some one part for myself.

The thought for to-day is one which I discovered in Epicurus; he says

“Contented poverty is an honourable estate.”

Indeed, if it be contented, it is not poverty at all.
It is not the man who has too little,
but the man who craves more, that is poor.

What does it matter how much a man has laid up in his safe, or in his warehouse, how large are his flocks and how fat his dividends,
if he covets his neighbor’s property, and reckons, not his past gains, but his hopes of gains to come?

Do you ask what is the proper limit to wealth?

It is, first,
to have what is necessary,
and, second,
to have what is enough.

FareWell。

Enough

Stoic, Seneca, StoicTaoist。

Nourish before Craving 渴望 初中

Nourish before Craving

It is the sign of an overnice appetite to toy with many dishes; for when they are manifold and varied, they cloy but do not nourish.

So you should always read standard authors; and when you crave a change, fall back upon those whom you read before.

Nourish before Craving

当你胃口过度渴望多方面; 和多样化的迹象时,

当太多种多样时,通常是会令人反感; 最初令人愉悦的东西。

所以,当你渴望改变的时候,回到那些你以前初中的滋养。

渴望 初中
渴望 初中

Crave not for variety and plenty,

As it may fill up, yet not fulfilled.

Seek not the latest & newest aplenty,

Search that which is ready & awaits within.

StoicTaoist 坚道学
Nourish before Craving

Possess Distraction 拥有 分心

Possess Distraction

In reading of many books, many is a distraction. 

Accordingly, since you cannot read all the books which you may possess, it is enough to possess only as many books as you can read.

Possess Distraction

在阅读你所有许多书籍时,太多是一种分心。

既然你无法阅读所有您可能拥有的,

因此仅只拥有您可阅读的书籍就足够了。

拥有 分心
拥有 分心

Having too many, possessing too much,

Can be too distracting.

Having what is needed, is to posse that which is enough.

StoicTaoist 坚道学
Possess Distraction